The history of floatationFrom the creation of a unique environment free from distractions, to a global tool for deep relaxation
John Lilly, inventor of the float tank
Back in the early 1950s there was a hot debate in the world of neuroscience.
Some scientists believed that the brain merely responded to stimuli in the environment, and that if all stimuli were removed, the brain would basically cease functioning. Others hypothesised that the brain would continue to function.
Dr John C Lilly, a neurophysiologist at the National Institute for Mental Health USA, decided to put this to the test. In order to do so, he designed and built the first float tank.
Sensory Deprivation becomes Float Therapy
The first float tank was very different to the modern floatation environment, and was originally called a sensory deprivation or isolation tank, reflecting its purpose in the scientific research. Over the years many manufacturers have produced a variety of float environments, catering to different preferences and needs. Design has evolved to include sophisticated systems to maintain temperature, sanitation and add-ons such as the options of lights and music. These days the terms floatation, or float therapy are used, which more accurately reflect how floating has evolved into a mainstream tool with a multitude of uses and benefits.
John Lilly and his volunteer experimental subjects discovered that, far from the mind passing into unconsciousness, a world of creative experience can unfold when the distractions of the outside world are excluded. He wrote: “I knew nothing of sensory deprivation: I found the tank was and is a rich source of new experience… One is not deprived; one is rewarded”.
Lilly published several scientific papers on his findings between 1956 and 1958, and his experiments with floatation continued through the next two decades.
“What one believes to be true either is true or becomes true in one’s mind, within limits to be determined experimentally and experientially. These limits are beliefs to be transcended.”
John C Lilly
A tool for self discovery
Recognising the power of the float environment as a tool for self discovery and personal transformation, Lilly wrote a several books to share his discoveries, and offered workshops to enable people to experience the calm, quiet peace for themselves. Attending one such workshop in was a very shy young computer programmer named Glenn Perry. He was so struck by the experience that he decided he had to build his own tank to use at home.
“So the first time I used the tank, John asked me to talk about my experience, and I was able to speak to the group without nervousness. If the tank could let me do something like that, it is something really incredible. My whole experience of leaving the tank after my first session was fabulous. The whole world was a shimmering, shining dance. I had to make a tank for myself, and being naive, thought that with just a little extra work I would make them for others.”
Special thanks to Lee and Glenn for letting us use this beautiful image!
Bringing floatation to the world
Glenn came up with the idea of putting lots of salt into the water to increase the buoyancy, so that anyone could float effortlessly, and worked with John Lilly to design the first commercially available floatation tank in 1972.
In 1974 he met the love of his life Lee Leibner, and together they formed the Samadhi Tank company to manufacture float tanks for people to buy for home use.
Motivated by a strong desire to bring the wonderful experience of floating to as many people as possible, and with the guidance of John Lilly, they opened the first commercial float centre in Beverly Hills in 1979. Now anyone could float even if they didn’t own a tank.
All sorts of people began to float, for all sorts of reasons
Sports teams integrated the tank into their training programmes to accelerate recovery, to reduce rehabilitation time from injury, and to take advantage of the optimum visualisation environment it provides.
Some used floating to overcome addictive behaviours.
Those suffering with chronic pain found relief.
Users found their sleep patterns improving, their stress levels reduced, and their senses reawakened upon emerging.
It became clear that floating weightless in the quiet darkness offered respite and rejuvenation for those with hectic lives, and opened a channel to the authentic source of creativity at the centre of each of us. The publication of Michael Hutchinson’s The Book of Floating, and word of mouth about the deep relaxation and profound mental clarity brought by floatation, meant that during the 1980s new float centres began to open all over the world.
Decades of scientific research
The 1980s also saw a series of International Conferences on REST (restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy) which brought floatation to the attention of the wider scientific community. Research into the effects of floatation began to accelerate, with many ground-breaking studies by the likes of Thomas Fine, John Turner, Peter Sudefeld and Arreed Barabasz.
Since then research has continued internationally, with scientists from Sweden to Australia publishing fascinating papers on the power of floatation. There is some exciting research under way right now at the Laureate Institute for Brain Research in Tulse Oklahoma.
Floating becomes mainstream
Floating has experienced a surge in popularity since 2010, with public figures such as Joe Rogan sharing their personal experiences of the benefits of floatation.
Today there are over 350 float centres in the USA alone, and many hundreds more around the world. Chances are there’s a float centre near you.
There is something very special about the experience of floating.
It is common for people who float to want others to share in their delight and bliss. That’s what motivated us to start Float in the Forest. We want as many people to be able to float as possible. Find out more about us.
It’s a pleasure and a privilege to be able to offer floatation in the Forest of Dean.